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本文摘要:Couples undergoing IVF treatment could be given the option to pick the “smartest” embryo within the next 10 years, a leading US scientist has predicted.据英国一名权威性生物学家预估,将来十年以内,保证做试管婴儿的夫妻将必须随意选择“最聪慧”的胚胎。

Couples undergoing IVF treatment could be given the option to pick the “smartest” embryo within the next 10 years, a leading US scientist has predicted.据英国一名权威性生物学家预估,将来十年以内,保证做试管婴儿的夫妻将必须随意选择“最聪慧”的胚胎。Stephen Hsu, senior vice president for research at Michigan State University, said scientific advances mean it will soon be feasible to reliably rank embryos according to potential IQ, posing profound ethical questions for society about whether or not the technology should be adopted.英国密歇根州立高校负责人科学研究的副校徐道辉(史蒂芬·徐)说道,科学研究转型意味著人们直接就必须对胚胎的潜在性智商得到可靠的得分,此项技术性否理应用以将是一个深刻的印象的社会发展伦理问题。

Hsu’s company, Genomic Prediction, already offers a test aimed at screening out embryos with abnormally low IQ to couples being treated at fertility clinics in the US.徐道辉的基因预测企业早就为在国外不孕不育症医院门诊拒不接受放化疗的夫妻获得了一项测试服务,目地筛选出有智商发现异常较低的胚胎。“Accurate IQ predictors will be possible, if not the next five years, the next 10 years certainly,” Hsu told the Guardian. “I predict certain countries will adopt them.”徐道辉对《卫报》新闻记者说道:“精准的智商预测是有可能的,即便并不是将来5年内,那麼在未来十年内也认可能够。我预估一些我国不容易接受此项技术性。

”The prospect of a new generation of genetically selected babies has prompted concerns about unintended medical consequences and the potential for deepening existing social inequalities. The science underpinning the claim that intelligence can be meaningfully predicted by genetic tests is also contentious.新一代遗传基因随意选择宝宝的市场前景造成了大家针对车祸事故诊疗不良影响和目前社会不公平有可能恶化的焦虑。基因检查必须合理地预测智商的科技进步也造成了异议。Peter Donnelly, a professor of statistical science at the University of Oxford, said any such IQ predictions should be treated with “huge caution”, adding: “I have grave misgivings about it on ethical grounds. I think it’s a really bad idea.”剑桥大学应用统计学专家教授约翰·唐纳利说,理应“十分谨慎”地看待该类智商预测。


他说道:“出自于伦理道德缘故,我答复十分焦虑。我强调这是一个十分很差的好点子。”Since the 1990s, couples undergoing IVF have been able to screen their embryos for mutations in single genes that cause serious diseases such as cystic fibrosis, as well as conditions like Down’s syndrome, caused by chromosome abnormalities.自上世纪90年代至今,拒不接受试管婴儿精卵结合的夫妻早就必须对她们的胚胎进行检测,以寻找单独遗传基因的基因变异,这种基因变异不容易导致相当严重的病症,例如囊性纤维化,及其性染色体发现异常导致的唐氏综合症等。Many other traits, including height, physical appearance, intelligence and disease susceptibility, are known to be partly heritable. But because the genetic component is spread thinly over hundreds or even thousands of DNA regions, it has previously been impossible to screen for these traits.很多别的特点,还包含休重、容貌、智商和病症易感基因,都被强调是一部分基因遗传的。


但因为基因遗传成分稀疏地集中化在百余乃至数千个DNA地区,之前不有可能对这种特点进行检测。In the past decade, as vast genetic databases have been established, this picture has changed. Through analyzing many genes, each making a tiny contribution, it has been possible to calculate what are called polygenic risk scores, which give a person’s likelihood of getting a particular disease or having a certain trait.过去的十年里,伴随着很多遗传基因数据库查询的建立,这类状况早就再次出现了变化。根据剖析很多遗传基因,每一个遗传基因都做出了细微的奉献,就有可能推算出来出所谓的多遗传基因风险性得分,即一个人患某类特殊病症或具有某类特点的概率。

Genomic Prediction is the first company to take embryo screening into this grey area of risk forecasting, offering to alert couples if an embryo has an “outlier” score for risk of cancers, diabetes, heart disease, dwarfism or low IQ.基因预测企业是第一家将胚胎筛选划归风险性预测这一黑色地带的企业。假如胚胎在癌病、糖尿病患者、心脏疾病、侏儒症或智商消沉等风险性层面的得分“发现异常”,它就不容易警示保证筛选的夫妻。


Prediction for IQ is not good enough to give a reliable ranking, but Hsu said that knowing an embryo has a low score could still be desirable.智商预测现阶段还足够得到可靠的得分,但徐道辉答复,假如一个胚胎的智商得分较低,大家有可能還是很想要告知。“Maybe the bottom 1% embryo will grow up to be a great person … even be a scientist, but the odds are against it,” he said. “I honestly feel if we can calculate that score and find a real negative outlier there’s an ethical responsibility for us to report that.”徐道辉说道:“也许得分小于的1%的胚胎长大以后不容易沦落一个优秀的人……乃至沦落一名生物学家,但这类概率较小。我明白确实,如果我们能推算出来出有这一得分,寻找它低得十分发现异常,那麼大家就会有社会道德义务未予告知。

”The company projects that once high-quality genetic and academic achievement data from a million individuals becomes available, expected to be within five to 10 years, it will be able to predict IQ to within about 10 points.该企业预估,在5至十年内,一旦一百万人的高品质遗传基因和学术研究造就数据信息可用,它将必须预测智商,偏差在10分之内。Hsu is reticent about whether screening for high intelligence would be ethically justified, saying: “Let me just decline to answer that at the moment.”徐道辉不肯评价高智商筛选否符合伦理道德规范,说道“现阶段我拒不接受问这个问题”。

In some countries, such as Singapore, there is likely to be a high level of public acceptance and demand for such tests, he suggested. “I think the overwhelming majority would say yes, absolutely, parents should be allowed to do that,” he said. “Before you write your piece, you might just want to think that a billion people on the other side of the world might have a different view.”徐道辉说道,在一些我国,例如马来西亚,群众对该类检验的接受程度和市场的需求很有可能会很高。他说道:“我强调绝大部分人认可不容易赞成允许爸爸妈妈那样保证。在你写成这篇报道以前,也许理应看一下地球上此外一端的十亿人有可能有各有不同的见解。”Whether such tests will become available in the UK would depend on approval from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA).这类检验方式可否在美国推行将不尽相同美国人工受精与胚胎学管理处的准许后。


“If the HFEA decides that it’s not right for the UK, I will respect that,” Hsu said, but predicted that “rich people from the UK will fly to Singapore” if they are unable to get the tests locally.他说道:“假如英国人工受精与胚胎学管理处指出这对英国不宜,我能认可这一规定。”但他预测,假如英国有钱人没法在本地进行此项检验,“她们不容易飞往马来西亚去保证的。”Some in the UK take the view that prospective parents have a right to access such tests. “I don’t think people should be deprived of that knowledge,” said Prof Simon Fishel, the founder of Care Fertility.在英国,一些人指出将来的爸爸妈妈有权利进行该类检验。

生孕关爱的机构的创办人西蒙·费舍尔专家教授说道:“我指出不理应褫夺大家的这类自主权。”Fishel questioned whether there is any ethical difference between picking an embryo ranked highest for IQ or sending a child to a private school. “What’s wrong with ranking an embryo if you can rank a child·” he said. “I think there are plenty of people who’d choose embryo Oxford [rather] than embryo A-level failure.”费舍尔指责筛出智力最少的胚胎和送过来小孩去民办学校中间否不会有伦理道德上的差别。“假如你能给孩子得分,那给胚胎得分又有哪些错呢?”他说道。“我指出有很多人会随意选择将来能考入剑桥的胚胎而不是没法根据英国初中高級水准考試的胚胎。

”In practice, though, couples often have only a few embryos to choose from. And there are concerns about unintended consequences. For instance, there is some evidence linking higher polygenic scores for academic ability to higher likelihood of autism.但本质上,夫妻们一般来说仅有好多个胚胎可列举。除此之外,大家还忧虑不容易经常会出现出乎意料的不良影响。比如,有直接证据指出,学术研究工作能力的多遗传基因成绩越高,患儿童自闭症的概率就越大。

The technology is controversial, but that does not mean it will not gain acceptance in the future, Hsu said, drawing parallels with the reaction to IVF in its early days.徐道辉说道,此项技术性不会有异议,但这并不意味著它在未来会被拒不接受,这与初期大家对试管婴儿的反映类似。“The IVF pioneers … were called monsters, Frankenstein doctors; it was predicted that these babies would have health problems,” he said. “I am actually reassured by that. IVF is completely normalized now. Everyone who is pointing their finger at [Genomic Prediction] now should go back and read those articles.”他说道:“做试管婴儿的先行者称之为妖怪,弗兰肯斯坦医师。那时候大家预测这种宝宝不容易有身心健康难题。




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